Deliberately Concealed Garments
This section provides a list of the sources we have used or come across during our research or ones that you may find of interest on topics associated with concealed garments. It comprises details of books, articles, essays, papers and bibliographies that you may find interesting.
We would like to hear of references which we haven't come across and would also be interested in reviews of articles or books you recommend or appear below. If you know of any references that may be of use to the project or want to review a book or article please email us on
How to understand our referencing
Costume and textiles
Folklore and folk customs
History and archaeology
Aaltonen, G. 2002. Sleeping beauty. The National Trust Magazine 96, 50-57.
Barbieri, G. 2003. Memoirs of an 18th century stomacher: A strategy for documenting the multiple object biographies of a once-concealed garment. Unpublished MA dissertation. The Textile Conservation Centre: University of Southampton.
Baynes, C. 1983. Ancient hall yields interesting find. Treasure Hunting, June 1983, 12.
Brooks, E. 2003. Mind the gap. Emily Brooks talks to an expert looking at secrets under our feet. The National Trust Magazine 100 (Autumn 2003), 63-65.
Cameron, E., Swann, J., Volken, M. and Pitt, F. 1998. Hidden shoes and concealed beliefs. Archaeological Leather Group Newsletter. February 1998, 2-6.
Collins, P. 2004. Cavity creeps. Village Voice Education Supplement. August 4-10, 2004, 42.
Devitt, C. 1992. A study of a woollen cloth garment from a Leicestershire coal mine. Unpublished diploma report. The Textile Conservation Centre.
Dew, C. 2003. SPAB Members own up to owning ancient clothing. SPAB News (The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings). 24 (4) 8.
Dew, C and Eastop, D. 2003. Hide and Seek. SPAB News (The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings). 24 (3) 22-23.
Docherty, J. 2003. Concealed and yet so revealing. Hampshire Chronicle. 17 January 2003, 11.
Eastop, D. and Dew, C. 2003. Secret agents: deliberately concealed garments as symbolic textiles. In: Vuori, J. (compiler). Tales in the Textile. The conservation of flags and other symbolic textiles, Preprints of the North American Textile Conservation Conference (NATCC) 2003. Volume 4. Albany, NY: NATCC, 5-15.
Eastop, D and Dew, C. 2002. Protective Practices: Documenting and Raising Awareness of Garments in Concealment Caches. In: Situated Knowledges. Design History Society Conference 2002 Abstracts. Aberystwyth: University of Aberystwyth, 10.
Eastop, D. 2001. Garments deliberately concealed in buildings. In: R. Wallis. and K. Lymer. (eds.) 2001. A Permeability of Boundaries? New Approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore. BAR International Series S936. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 79-83.
Finch, K. 1983. A medieval hat rediscover. Textile History, 14 (1) 67-70.
Gibson, L. 1993. The conservation of garment fragments excavated from a Leicestershire coal mine. Unpublished diploma report. The Textile Conservation Centre.
Harrison, A. and Gill, K. 2002. An eighteenth-century detachable pocket and baby’s cap, found concealed in a wall cavity: conservation and research. Textile History, 33 (2) 177-194.
Harrison, A. 1998. The preparation for display of an eighteenth-century baby’s cap and pocket, found concealed in a wall cavity. Unpublished diploma report. The Textile Conservation Centre.
Harrison, A. 1998. An investigation in to the degredative effects of the retention of soiling on historic and archaeological textiles and a strategy for preventive care, with reference to a seventeenth-century doublet. Unpublished diploma report. The Textile Conservation Centre.
Hood, F. 2002. The characterisation and conservation of a concealed of a concealed hat from Cupar in Fife, Scotland. Unpublished MA dissertation. The Textile Conservation Centre: Univeristy of Southampton.
James, H. 2004. Hidden Delights. Period Living and Traditional Homes. January 2004, 56
Keys, D. 1991. Dead men's shoes 'protected' miners. The Independent. 31 March 1991, 6.
May, R.V. 2001. Soldier in the chimney: evidence for ritual magic at U.S. army fort Rosecrans, San Diego, California. Unpublished paper, courtesy of the author.
Northampton Chronicle and Echo. 1992. Old building’s creepy secret. Northampton Chronicle and Echo, Saturday 12 September 1992, 5.
Perkins, A. 1999. The book of Sonning. The story of an English village. Buckingham: Baron, 80-81.
Robertson, C. 2003. Mystery of horde found in the attic. Mid-Sussex Today. October 2, 2003.
Stangl, A. and Lang, F. 1995. Mönche und Scholaren: Funde aus 900 Jahren Kloster Alpirsbach. Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Karlsruhe: Germany, Baden-Württemberg.
Stanton, S. 1995. A seventeenth-century linen doublet: the development of a strategy for the documentation, preservation and display of a rare item of working class dress. Unpublished diploma report. The Textile Conservation Centre.
Swann, J. 1969. Shoes concealed in buildings. Northampton County Borough Museums and Art Gallery Journal, 6, December 1969, 8-21.
Swann, J. 1996. Shoes concealed in buildings. Costume: The Journal of the Costume Society 30, 56-69.
Swann, J. 1997. Requests. Group for Costume and Textile Staff in Museums Newsletter, Autumn 1997, 20.
The Historical Museum Basle. 1994. Guide to the collections. London: Merrell Holberton.
Wood, V. 1991. Concealed shoes – Harlestone find. Friends of Northampton Museum and Art Gallery Newsletter. November 1991, 1-2.
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Brendan, E. 1985. Good Luck 'Treasure'. The Period Home, 6 (9) 10.
Davies, B. 1989. Treasures and Tribulations. Traditional Homes. May 1989, 12.
Dean, J. 1997. Ritual protection marks on Norfolk buildings: a recent survey. A paper compiled for the Vernacular Architecture Group Spring Conference, Norwich, April 1997.
Available at: http://www.homewld.demon.co.uk/content.htm
Easton, T. 1991. Ritual protection of the home. Vernacular Architecture Group (VAG) Newsletter, January 1991, 20, 11-12.
Easton, T. 1995. Spiritual Middens. In: Oliver, P. (ed.) 1995. Encyclopaedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 568.
Easton, T. 1999. Ritual marks on historic timber. Weald & Downland Open Air Museum. Spring 1999, 22-28.
Edghill, S. 2002. What lurks behind your walls? Dried cats, perhaps? Horses' skulls? Sarah Edghill unearths a mixed bag of old-fashioned insurance policies. Telegraph Property. Saturday 25 May 2002, 7.
Frazer, J. 1922. The golden bough, a study of magic and religion. London: The Macmillion Press.
See especially: The perils of the soul, 235-255.
Harris, R. 1999. Richard Harris describes some of the marks to be seen on buildings in the Museum. Weald & Downland Open Air Museum. Spring 1999, 29-30.
Hoggard, B. 1999. The Archaeology of Folk Magic. White Dragon - Witchcraft, Occultism and Earth Mysteries for Mercia and Beyond 23, 17-20. Also available at http://www.whitedragon.org.uk/articles/folk.htm
Hoggard, B. 2001. Home's Hidden Charms. SPAB News (The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings), 22(3) 18-21.
Hoggard, B. 2001. Folk Magic in Britain 1200-2000 - Archaeology and History. The Glyph - The Archaeological Institute of America, San Diego Society.
1(23) 4, 5 and 11.
Howard, M.M. 1951. Dried cats. Man, LXXXI, 149-151.
Lea, M. 1969. At Powis Castle, Montgomeryshire. Country Life, 30 May 1969, 1464.
Lloyd, V., Dean, J. and Westwood, J. 2001. Burn marks as evidence of apotropaic practices in houses, farm buildings and churches in post-Medieval
East Anglia. In: R. Wallis and K. Lymer (eds.) 2001. A Permeability of Boundaries? New Approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore. BAR International Series S936. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 57-70.
Massey, A. 2003. Spooky or what? What do hidden bottles, bent pins, locks of hair, dead cats, old shoes, urine … and a period house have in common? Alan Massey explains. Period House, November 2003, 138, 92-95.
Massey, A, Smith, R.M. and Smith,T.A.D. 2003. A witch bottle from Dorset. Education in Chemistry, July 2003, 97-100.
Merrifield, R. 1987. The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic. London: Batsford. See especially: Chapter 5. Survivals, revivals and reinterpretations, 107-136.
Rushen, J. 1985. Hidden Secrets of Old Houses. The Period Home, 6 (9) 11-13.
The National Trust. 2003. Mystery of the lost book. The National Trust Magazine 100 (Autumn 2003), 6.
The National Trust. 1996. Shoes give evil spirits the boot. The National Trust Southern Region Newsletter (Spring 1996), 1.
Wardle, B.M. 1969. A good luck symbol? Country Life, 4 December 1969, 1468.
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Amphlett, H. 1974. Hats. A History of Fashion in Headwear. Chalfont St Giles, Bucks: Richard Sadler.
Clabburn, P. (ed.) 1971. Working Class Costume from Sketches of Characters by William Johnstone White 1818. London: Costume Society.
Grew, F. and de Neergaard, M. 1988. Shoes and pattens. London : H.M.S.O. (Medieval finds from excavations in London; No.2).
Kirby, D., Thomas, D. and Turner, L. (eds.) 1988. Northampton Remembers Boot and Shoe. Northampton: Northampton Borough Council Community Programme.
Lister, M. 1972. Costumes of Everyday Life. An Illustrated History of Working Clothes from 900 to 1910. London: Barrie & Jenkins.
de Marly, D. 1986. Working Dress. A History of Occupational Clothing. London: B.T. Batsford.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Northampton Museum. 1976. Shoe and Leather Bibliography. Northampton: Northampton Museum.
Rowe, R. 1976 . "Snobopolis": Northampton in 1869. Northampton: Northampton Museums & Art Gallery. Reprinted with additional information by Victor A. Hatley. Previously printed in Journal of the British Boot & Shoe
Institution 13(13), July 1966; and as Northampton Historical Series no. 1.
Swann, J. 1982. Shoes. London: B.T. Batsford.
Swann, J. 1997. Shoemaking. Princes Risborough, Bucks: Shire.
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Baker, M. 1974. Folklore and Customs of Rural England. Newton Abbot: David & Charles.
See especially: Chapter 3: House and garden magic, 58-88.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Hoggard, B. 2000-2002. Folk Magic in Britain. Online bibliography: http://www.folkmagic.co.uk/magic/books.htm
Durrans, B. 1993. Request for information about 'time capsules'. Vernacular Architecture Group (VAG) Newsletter, June 1993, 25,19.
Evans, G.E. 1966. The days that we have seen. London: Faber and Faber.
Evans, G.E. 1966. Pattern under the plough. Aspects of folk-life of East Anglia. London: Faber and Faber.
Evans, G.E. 1956. Ask the fellows that cut the hay. London: Faber and Faber.
Frazer, J. 1922. The Golden Bough, A Study of Magic and Religion. The Macmillan Press: London.
Hankins, J. 2003. Light in the dark ages. The Guardian Weekend. 30 August 2003, 49.
Hole, C. 1940. English folklore. London: Batsford Ltd.
Main, V. 1998/9. Corn Dollies: Searching for the Seed of Truth. Folk Life - Journal of Ethnological Studies, 37, 44-63.
Moore-Colyer, R.J. 1993/4. On the Ritual Burial of Horses in Britain. Folk Life - Journal of Ethnological Studies, 32, 58-65.
Smith, J.B. 1998/9. 'Pot-Lid' and 'Jack in the Cellar': The Unborn Child in Saying, Custom and Artefact. Folk Life - Journal of Ethnological Studies, 37, 92-98.
Thomas, K. 1971. Religion and the decline of magic. New York: Charles Scribner's Son.
Wiltshire, R. 2001/2. The Archives of Cultural Tradition: a Unique Folklore and Folk Life Resource. Folk Life - Journal of Ethnological Studies, 40, 72-79.
Wojias, O. 2000. Healing a cow with a cat and a left shoe. The Times Higher Education Supplement. 28 January 2000, 7.
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Eastop, D. 1998. Decision-making in conservation the role of the artefact. In: Á. Tímár-Balázsy and D. Eastop. (eds.). International perspectives in textile conservation, papers from the ICOM-CC textiles working group meetings, Amsterdam 13-14 1994 and Budapest 11-15 September 1995. London: Archetype, 43-46.
Lister, A. 1996. Guidelines for the Conservation of Textiles. London: English Heritage.
Museums and Galleries Commision. 1998. Standards in the Museum Care of Costume and Textile Collections. London: Museums and Galleries Commission.
Robinson, J. and Pardoe, T. 2000. An Illustrated Guide to the Care of Costume and Textile Collections. London: Museums and Galleries Commission.
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Brooks, E. 2003. Mind the gap. Emily Brooks talks to an expert looking at secrets under our feet. The National Trust Magazine100 (Autumn 2003), 63-65.
Brunskill, R.W. 1982. Traditional Buildings in Britain: An Introduction to Vernacular Architecture. London: Gollancz in association with Peter Crawley.
Harris, R. The importance of research and recording. Vernacular Architecture Group (VAG) Newsletter, June 1989, 17,10-11.
Pearson, S. and Meeson, R. (eds.) 2001. Vernacular Buildings in a Changing World: Understanding, Recording, Conservation. York: Council for British Archaeology.
Steane, J. and Bloxham, C. 1987/8. Secrets Under the Floorboards. Folk Life - Journal of Ethnological Studies, 36, 40-44.
Wilkinson, P. 2004. Filling the gaps in time. The National Trust Magazine 101 (Spring 2004), 85.
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Dodd, A. (ed.) 1996. Tracks and traces. The archaeology of the channel tunnel rail link. Oxford: Oxford and Wessex Archaeology.
Knight, S. 1994. Excavations at Montgomery castle. Archaeologia Cambrentio, CXL III, 147-149.
Merrifield, R. 1987. The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic. London: Batsford.
Merrifield, R. 1969. Folklore in London archaeology. The London Archaeologist 1 (5) 101.
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Last updated: 8 October, 2004
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